Pankisi is a valley in the upper reaches of River Alazani south of Tusheti. Administratively, it is part of the Akhmeta municipality in Kakheti region. Because the area is close to the border of Chechnya in the Russian Federation, Pankisi’s population consists mainly of an ethnic group of Kists and Chechen. Unspoiled by tourists, Pankisi Gorge offers lush greenery, remote villages of Chechen Georgians, beautiful waterfalls, lakes, and hiking trails to Tusheti. Pankisi fortress dates back to the Middle Ages, and according to the historians, it was the sit of Pankisi dukes. The castle is built on a rocky mountain. The fortress and its walls were built using split stone. Some parts of the wall are of 2.5 meters thick, and some even reach the thickness of 3.6 meters. The fortification had a citadel and a lower castle, along with a church and a tower.